Finally, a couple of pictures that show the use of classical themes. We've seen elements in earlier pictures, but this one and the one on the next page make no pretence to religious or modern secular topics but are focused squarely on the classical world.
This great painting shows the luminaries of Greek philosophy, reflecting the impact Greek studies had had on Europe in the later 1400s. A number of Greeks are represented. That's Plato and Aristotle in the center (notice how the structure of the picture guides your eye to these two). To their right, in green, is a somewhat ferocious fellow haranguing a soldier: that's Socrates. The identity of others has been debated for centuries, for Raphael left no key to the figures.
It's also a great exercise in perspective. The artist has the entire scene appear as if viewed through an arch, then has three arches stretching away into the distance. He puts in steps as a way to present even more people in the crowd scene, and everyone is in perspective. Then, as if that weren't enough, he puts in some statues in the background. Quite a display of technical talent.
As you can see, this painting exists in somebody's house—there's the doorway on the lower right. The "somebody" was Pope Julius II and the room was to be his personal library. Raphael was only twenty-seven years old when he executed this work, in 1508.