Oh Grow Up!
Boys and Girls
There followed an age of childhood, that was generally recognized as lasting up to around the age of seven or so. Latin for boy is puer, which is where we get the word puerile from.
This was recognized as the age of play. Both sexes were under the care of the mother specifically and of the women in general. Boys and girls were too young yet for education or training, and had no significant chores. They tended to stay close to the house.
Around age seven, things changed significantly. There's no separate word for this age, from seven to puberty, but the differences were manifested in several ways. For example, children could be betrothed after age seven, though there could be no marriage until age twelve or fourteen, and the betrothal could be repudiated until that time.
One key difference was education. Whether at farm, shop, school, or court, children were regarded as educable and were set to learning. Girls began helping not only around the house but in the garden and with small livestock. Older girls also had the duty of helping tend the younger children. If there was a craft practiced by the womenfolk, they began learning it. Boys began helping in the shop or on the farm, and were expected to be part of communal tasks such as harvest or construction. In general, and with individual exceptions, the wealthier and more noble tended to separate the sexes at a younger age than did the poor.
Children were still characterized as carefree and not fully responsible for their actions. One writer stated that boys are carefree, never think about the future, want only to play with their peers, do not fear authority but do fear a whipping. Another writer called this the "age of concussion" which is a grand phrase. Girls rarely get separate treatment in the literature. When they do, the emphasis is on them as future young ladies. For boys, the emphasis is on what they do; for girls, it's on how they ought to behave.